Internet protocols are sets of rules that describe how specific web pages interact with each other, and how should they be treated by users, software and other web pages, and are useful for identifying the scope of different web sites, according to the type of protocol they operate under.

HTTP (or Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) is used to facilitate file transfers between a Web Server and a Web Browser, in order to view a web site. HTTP transfers the contents of one web page at a time, for viewing purposes only, and so it is a one-way transfer protocol, since data travels from the web server to the browser in a continuous stream, and any responses from the browser to the web server travels in a separate stream.

When putting HTTP:// before the address of a web page, it means that the browser is connecting to a web server, and not a file server, and that the files are being transmitted for viewing, and are not being downloaded and saved in a local storage unit.

An exception to this rule are cookies (small files that are saved on a user's local hard disk, and communicate with the web server to relay information such as browsing history), and browser cache (stored pages, that enable browsers to quickly load web sites by restoring stored pages, and updating the necessary information).

FTP (or File Transfer Protocol) is a protocol which facilitates the transfer of files between a web server and a client. Through FTP, users can connect to a remote server, via username and password, and execute any type of file operation on the files present on the server. Administrators can limit the types of actions that can be performed.

Usually, users can upload new files, download existing files, delete, rename or copy existing files, create archives, create new files, and more. FTP transfers are bi-directional, meaning that you can upload, and you can download, more than one file at a time. Data uploaded is physically stored on the remote server, and data downloaded is physically stored locally. FTP is ideal when you need to access and modify remote files.

SFTP (or SSH FTP, or Secure FTP) and HTTPS (HTTP Secured) include the features FTP and HTTP, with the addition of security features provided by security and encryption protocols such as SSH for FTP and SSL for HTTP. Basically HTTPS allows you to view pages securely, without risk of data being intercepted and read by unauthorized users, and SFTP allows you transfer data to and from the remote server without having to worry about the security of the information transmitted.

SSH or Secure Shell is a network protocol that ensures data protection by transmitting data between clients and servers through a secure channel. This prevents any sort of tampering with data while it's travelling from one terminal to another.

SSL or Secure Socket Layer is cryptographic security protocol that protects data when transmitted over the Internet by encrypting it. The data is transferred and received in an encrypted state, and the receiver decrypts the data in order for it to be processed. Even if someone manages to intercept data while it is travelling, it would be unreadable, and in order to decrypt it, they would need the algorithms and the keys which are kept by the authorized receiver.